I’ll define biographical criticism as a critical approach that uses the events of an author’s life to explain meaning in the author’s work. Examples are ubiquitous and familiar: Samuel Clemens piloted a riverboat in the Antebellum Era, John Steinbeck researched migrant workers and families in California before publishing Grapes of Wrath, and Joseph Conrad captained a steamboat in the Congo. Chaucer’s grandmother, according to my AP English teacher, served as his inspiration for the Wife of Bath. Even as early as my 7th grade English class, I learned that Shakespeare had a son named Hamnet who died around the time the Bard wrote Hamlet.
According to Benson, a biographical approach considers a work’s first-order context – the author’s life – and recognizes literary study as being an art not a science (110). He places it at odds with New Criticism, so a work takes on a different meaning when viewed through the lens of an author’s life.
Let’s attempt a biographical critique of Frost’s “Home Burial.” We read it in class and know already that Frost and his wife Elinor, just like the poem’s couple, lost their first-born son soon after his birth. Because the poem is long, I suggest a new tab for this link to follow along at home.
Imagine the author of "Stopping by Woods..." threatening his sister from this porch
Frost’s poems are often in first person, so it seems ironic that this poem is written not only in dialogue but also in third-person. A way of pushing away a poem that Frost called “sad” and never read aloud in public (Thompson 598)? Perhaps, but Thompson gives several more details about the poem’s background. Frost admitted the emotional parallels between him and his wife after their child’s death and Amy’s and her husband’s after theirs. Amy’s declamation that “the world’s evil” in Line 110 is a verbatim quote from Elinor Frost following her own child’s death.
The true subject of the poem – from a biographical perspective – is the death of Frost’s nephew, child of his sister-in-law Leona White Harvey, in 1895. It was her relationship with her husband that inspired the poem. Thompson implies yet another connection to Frost’s life, this time to his childhood in San Francisco. In the index under “Home Burial,” he lists page 10. While no reference to the poem exists on that page, it does describe how Frost’s mother would at times leave the house when his and flee to a neighbor’s when his father was drunk. If I may posit my own connection, a fight with his sister Jeannie (Thompson 340) in which he used a loaded pistol to force her back into the house may have inspired the force alluded to at the poem’s closing. Also, the poem was written in England at a time when Frost was homesick.
Those life events are the personal context for “Home Burial.” Rather than adding meaning to the poem, whose text remains unchanged, these revelations about Frost’s life and the poem’s possible inspirations change the interpretation of Frost’s life. Biographical criticism may explain the personal context of the poem, but it does not explain the poem’s meaning, its significance.
Rather, as we discussed today in class, it limits the interpretations. Because we know Frost’s and Harvey’s firstborn children died, we assume also that Amy and her husband lost their firstborn. No mention is made of other children, but they might be there (lack of evidence is not evidence of absence). The attendant implications for Amy and her husband’s relationship are enormous; “Newlyweds” weathering a crisis from their first child’s death is more tragic and dangerous than parents struggling with the death of their third.
I argue biographical criticism casts the choices inherent in writing as clues to the author’s personality – not the poem’s meaning. In this way, Frost’s oeuvre is the leading witness in finding meaning in Frost. We can see him taking different strategies when dealing with an emotional Elinor, progressing from belittling, to consolation, to denunciation, to confrontation. In this way biographical criticism creates an interpretation of the author, as Foucault suggests, and can reveal much about the times and culture of when the work was written.
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Essay about Analysis of Home Burial by Robert Frost
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Analysis of Home Burial by Robert Frost
Robert Frost wrote the poem Home Burial after he and his wife suffered the tragic loss of their 4-year-old son. Home Burial shows the emotions people feel after such a loss, and how they face those emotions. Through Frost's experience he shows that men and women grieve in different ways.
In Home Burial Frost demonstrates, through the husband, that in the grieving process men tend to show strength. Throughout the poem you see the husband proceed to do his everyday tasks. The husband states, 'Three foggy mornings and one rainy day are enough to rot the best birch fence a man could build.'(Robert Frost). Here is just one example of how the husband is trying to move forward through work.…show more content…
He wants to be the man of the house and be able to make everything the way it was. He wants to be the one who helps Amy get past the pain of the child they lost. He feels that as her husband, she should share her thoughts and feelings with only him. Only he can help her through this horrible time in their life. If Amy goes to someone else, he will feel as if he is useless as a man, since he couldn?t help his wife get over her grief, or keep his child from death.
In the poem we see that in times of grief, women tend to show weakness and the need for isolation. Amy seems to be wallowing in her own sorrows. Gale states,? She risks burying both her marriage and her sanity.?(Gale). Amy feels that she is the only one in pain over the loss of their child, and does not recognize that just because her husband does not openly show his emotions, that he too has been affected by their child?s death. She wants to leave and get out of the house, instead of seeking comfort from her husband. Everything in the house, including her husband, reminds her of her dead child. She sees nothing but death and has, in a sense, died herself. She always stares out the window at the child?s mound and cannot get past the fact that her husband was the one that buried their child.
The husband asks Amy ?What was it brought you up to think it the thing to take your mother-loss of a first child so inconsolably in the face of