The sources part of an APA reference list are only those that are traceable, and can be used by others. Because a personal interview does not constitute recoverable data, it should not be included in an APA reference list. Instead a personal interview should be referenced as a parenthetical citation. For example: (J. Smith, personal communication, May 17, 2008).
If you would like to include a personal interview as part of your APA reference list, then include the interviewee, the date of the interview, and the type of interview. See the fictional examples below:
Personal interview by phone
Soriano, A. (2008, April 5). Telephone interview.
Personal interview by email
Soriano, A. (2008, April 5). Email interview.
Personal interview in person
Soriano, A. (2008, April 5). Personal interview.
Personal interview overheard and conducted by a third party
Soriano, A. (2008, April 5). Personal interview with K. Walter & J. Smith.
Referencing or citing your sources is an important part of academic writing. It lets you acknowledge the ideas or words of others if you use them in your work and helps avoid plagiarism.
Referencing also demonstrates that you've read relevant background literature and you can provide authority for statements you make in your assignments.
The Harvard citation style is the preferred referencing style for many disciplines of study at the University of Western Australia. It is an author-date referencing style. The Harvard citation style can vary in minor features such as punctuation, capitalisation, abbreviations, and the use of italics.
Click on the Understanding referencing tab above to learn more about the anatomy of a Harvard citation.
The examples in this guide have been developed in collaboration with the UWA Business School. Always check with your lecturer/tutor for which citation style they prefer you to use.